I occasionally get asked for a recommendation for a good reference book explaining architectural terms (styles and elements) for sketchers (not architects).
My answer: Rice’s Architectural Primer by Matthew Rice.
Although limited to a history of English architecture, it contains a wealth of information about architectural details and elements, all beautifully drawn in ink and wash. It contains pages of different elements and then pages showing specific buildings with their features noted. I have a more comprehensive and heavy duty illustrated architectural dictionary, but this book is pure delight.
There is also a book on churches and one on the villages of Britain. I have both of these as well, and they are great, but if you are looking for a single book, the Primer is the best.
Best thing for me to do is just to share a few sample pages.